Alopecia is a generic term to define hair loss. There are different kinds of alopecia, triggered by immunological, metabolic or unknown causes .
The pathologic aspect of hair loss is a social problem. Many treatments have been proposed for hair loss treatment throughout history, dating back to Egyptian papyri of 4000 a. C. Many dermatologic treatments and cosmetic products are being developed to improve hair density and to stop, or at least to decline, the loss .
It is very important to identify correctly which kind of alopecia will be treated to achieve a good clinical result . Currently, the treatment is drawn based on clinical type of alopecia that affects the patient .
Two classes of active cosmetics were recently released. The first class was defined as “Growth Factors”. These proteins are produced through the process of genetic engineering, introducing the gene encoding within the DNA of E. coli, allowing large-scale production of these peptides. One of the great advantages of this process is that the recombinant proteins acquired in the process are 100% homologous to human, reducing the risk of allergic reactions to the product .
The product passes through a purification process generating the pure peptide. This peptide is then nanoencapsulated, where it is encased in liposomes, forming a protective barrier that increases the stability of the product, protecting against endogenous proteases and increasing the penetration through the skin .
The treatment of alopecia using growth factors shows interesting activity in promoting hair growth. In this concept, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) is a marker of angiogenesis, stimulating hair growth by facilitating the supply of nutrients to the hair follicle, increasing follicular diameter .
It was demonstrated that the expression of VEGF in human alopecia follicles significantly decreased comparing to the normal follicles . It was observed that Minoxidil, one of the pharmaceutical treatments approved for the therapy of Alopecia, could promote hair growth through upregulating the expression of VEGF in hair dermal papilla cells .
Considering the explanation above, the aim of this study was the quantitative evaluation of a topical gel enriched with VEGF liposomes on the hair growth stimulation and its toxicological aspects regarding changes in biochemical and hematological parameters as well as the histopathological analysis.