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Table 1 Crude associations between risk factors at baseline and the incidence of asthma and rhinitis*

From: Eczema in early childhood is strongly associated with the development of asthma and rhinitis in a prospective cohort

Risk factor at baseline Total number in category n (%) Number with asthma n Asthma OR (95% CI) P-value Number with rhinitis n Rhinitis OR (95% CI) P-value
Eczema     <0.001    <0.001
No 2,573 (82.4) 101 1.0   107 1.0  
Yes 551 (17.6) 49 2.85 (1.72-4.71)   65 3.14 (2.27-4.36)  
Persistence of eczema        <0.001
No 2,886 (92.4) 58 1.0 <0.001 135 1.0  
Yes 238 (7.6) 15 4.20 (2.31-7.64)   37 3.92 (2.64-5.82)  
Onset of eczema        <0.001
No 2,483 (80.6) 46 1.0 <0.001 98 1.0  
Age ≥ one year 216 (6.9) 6 1.87 (0.7-4.45)   8 0.96 (0.46-2.00)  
Age < one year 386 (12.6) 21 3.63 (2.12-6.22)   66 5.02 (3.58-7.05)  
Eczema severity        <0.001
No 2,478 (79.47) 45 1.0 <0.001 98 1.0  
Mild 468 (15.0) 17 2.42 (1.36-4.29)   47 2.74 (1.90-3.95)  
Moderate to severe 173 (5.5) 11 4.55 (2.27-9.12)   27 4.74 (2.98-7.55)  
Gender        0.001
Female 1,546 (49.5) 25 1.0 0.002 65 1.0  
Male 1,579 (50.5) 48 2.16 (1.32-3.54)   107 1.67 (1.21-2.29)  
Age of the child        0.727
12-23 month 1,557 (49.8) 41 1.0 0.325 88 1.0  
24-35 month 1,568 (50.2) 32 0.79 (0.49-1.27)   84 0.95 (0.70-1.29)  
Parental history of allergic disease        <0.001
No parent 1,594 (51.0) 26 1.0 <0.001 47 1.0  
One parent 1,199 (38.4) 32 1.92 (1.14-3.25)   83 2.45 (1.69-3.53)  
Two parents 332 (10.6) 15 (7.2) 3.67 (1.90-7.08)   42 4.85 (3.12-7.55)  
Asthma in the child        <0.001
No 2,843 (91.4) -- --   147 1.0  
Yes 269 (8.6) -- -- -- 25 4.10 (2.57-6.54)  
Length of breastfeeding        0.791
Longer than 6 month 2,043 (65.9) 44 1.0 0.021 112 1.0  
Up to 6 months 974 (31.4) 23 1.14 (0.68-1.90)   54 1.02 (0.73-1.43)  
No breastfeeding 82 (2.7) 6 3.32 (1.36-8.11)   6 1.35 (0.57-3.16)  
Number of bedrooms with PVC        0.116
No PVC in bedroom 1,300 (42.8) 23 1.0 0.184 60 1.0  
PVC in one bedroom 558 (18.4) 14 1.42 (0.72-2.79)   38 1.51 (0.99-2.30)  
PVC in two bedrooms 1,183 (38.9) 34 1.65 (0.96-2.82)   70 1.31 (0.92-1.87)  
Type of building        0.453
Single-family house 2,522 (82.4) 58 1.0 0.902 137 1.0  
Multi-family house 538 (17.6) 12 1.04 (0.55-1.96)   33 1.13 (0.75-1.70)  
Parental smoking        0.357
No 2,431 (77.8) 56 1.0 0.691 139 1.0  
Yes 694 (22.2) 17 1.12 (0.64-1.94)   33 0.83 (0.56-1.23)  
Number of adults living with the child        0.830
Two or more adults 2,853 (93.8) 66 1.0 0.320 157 1.0  
One adult 190 (6.2) 6 1.54 (0.65-3.62)   11 1.07 (0.57-2.01)  
  1. 3,124 children aged 1–2 in 2000 in Värmland, Sweden, were included in the analysis.
  2. *during the 5-year follow-up period.