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Table 1 Collection of instrument-related allergic, irritant, and traumatic skin conditions that may occur in musicians

From: Contact dermatitis and other skin conditions in instrumental musicians

Instrument Allergic noxae Irritant/traumatic noxae
violin, viola allergic contact dermatitis to colophony, nickel, propolis, chromium, exotic woods para-phenylenediamine "fiddler's neck", Garrod's pads, finger dermatitis and callosities
cello, (contra) bass allergic contact dermatitis to nickel, para-phenylenediamine colophony, propolis "cellist's chest", "cellist's knee" "cello scrotum"(?), finger dermatitis and callosities
woodwind instruments (flute, clarinet saxophone etc.) allergic contact dermatitis to nickel, exotic woods, cane reeds "flautist's chin", "clarinetist's cheilitis" etc., lip callosities
brass instruments (trumpet, horn etc.) allergic contact dermatitis to nickel, chromium cheilitis, lip callosities, facial soft tissue changes (Satchmo's syndrome), lip atrophy and ischaemia
harmonica allergic contact dermatitis to nickel, chromium cheilitis
guitar, bass guitar sitar etc. allergic contact dermatitis to nickel, chromium, para-phenylenediamine "guitar nipple", finger dermatitis and callosities, paronychia
harp allergic contact dermatitis to chromium finger dermatitis and callosities, paronychia, onycholysis
piano, keyboards   finger dermatitis, paronychia, onycholysis
drums, percussion   callosities ("drummer's digit), finger dermatitis, skin trauma (blisters, ulceration etc.)