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Table 1 Baseline data, characteristics and allergy related disease at 2 years

From: Perinatal probiotic supplementation in the prevention of allergy related disease: 6 year follow up of a randomised controlled trial

  Comparison of treatment groups Comparison of drop out cases  
  Probiotic (n = 211) Placebo (n = 204) Attended 6 yr examination Drop-outs  
  na   na   na   na   p-valueb
Baseline data and characteristics
Age, mother (years), mean ± SD 191 30.1 (3.9) 189 30.3 (4.4) 162 30.7 (3.9) 218 29.8 (4.2) 0.024
Education, mother (yrs), mean ± SD 183 15.3 (2.2) 181 15.2 (2.3) 156 15.2 (2.1) 208 15.2 (2.4) 0.968
Education, father (yrs), mean ± SD 184 14.8 (2.7) 179 14.7 (2.4) 156 14.7 (2.5) 207 14.8 (2.6) 0.561
Birth weight (g), mean ± SD 187 3662 (478) 176 3596 (474) 161 3626 (466) 202 3635 (486) 0.814
Sex (male), n (%) 193 96 (49.7) 191 80 (41.8) 163 76 (46.6) 221 100 (45.3) 0.151
Premature, n (%) 189 5 (2.7) 185 7 (3.8) 162 5 (3.1) 212 7 (3.3) 1.000c
Siblings, n (%) 207 91 (44.0) 200 78 (39.0) 163 82 (50.3) 244 87 (35.7) 0.003
Atopy in family, n (%) 207 152 (73.4) 200 148 (74.0) 163 127 (77.9) 244 173 (70.9) 0.115
Smoking motherd, n (%) 204 16 (7.8) 200 19 (9.5) 163 13 (8.0) 241 12 (9.1) 0.686
Smoking fatherd, n (%) 203 35 (17.2) 198 38 (19.2) 163 21 (12.8) 238 52 (21.8) 0.022
Breastfed ≥ 3 months, n (%) 168 164 (97.6) 166 162 (97.6) 155 153 (98.7) 179 173 (96.7) 0.293c
At least one pet at homed, n (%) 207 52 (25.1) 200 53 (26.5) 163 47 (28.8) 244 58 (23.7) 0.253
Used antibioticsd, n (%) 161 35 (21.7) 159 34 (21.4) 152 34 (22.4) 168 35 (20.8) 0.739
Fish ≤ 6 mo., n (%) 163 35 (21.5) 165 27 (16.4) 155 22 (14.2) 173 40 (23.1) 0.039
Vegetables ≤ 6 mo., n (%) 166 84 (50.6) 166 105 (63.3) 156 90 (57.7) 176 99 (56.3) 0.791
Protocol compliancee, n (%) 150 130 (86.7) 148 128 (86.5) 147 134 (91.2) 151 124 (82.1) 0.022
Allergy related disease at 2 years  
Atopic dermatitis, n(%) 138 29 (21.0) 140 48 (34.3) 145 52 (35.9) 133 25 (18.8) 0.001
Allergic sensitisationf, n(%) 131 20 (15.3) 133 15 (11.3) 140 26 (18.6) 124 9 (7.3) 0.007
  1. aN: number of observed cases for each variable differs based on the source of information; bp-values for attendees versus dropouts calculated using t-test for continuous variables and χ2 for binary variables; cFisher’s exact test used to calculate p-values for binary variables with frequency <=5 in one or more cell of the contingency table; dExposure to smoking, household pets or antibiotics reported anytime during the first year of life or during pregnancy; eCompliance defined as consumption of 250 mL of study on ≥50 % of days, no consumption of other probiotic products and breast feeding for ≥ 3 months; fPositive skin prick test and or specific IgE level, if only one negative test result was available, the child was considered not sensitised