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Table 1 Overview of the different phototherapeutic strategies within the main groups of sclerotic connective tissue diseases. [Categories: A – double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled; B – open, randomised; C – open, non-randomized; D – case series; E – case report]

From: UVA/UVA1 phototherapy and PUVA photochemotherapy in connective tissue diseases and related disorders: a research based review

Disease Therapy Dosage Experience Comments
Systemic sclerosis UVA - - requires evaluation
  UVA128–31 low-/medium-dose E, C benefit, especially suited for acrosclerosis and partial body exposure
  PUVA18,32–34 medium-dose E, D bath application in childhood discussed
Localized scleroderma UVA36,37 low-dose C benefit, no further evaluation
  UVA138–45 low-/medium-/high-dose D, C no exact recommendation in favor to best dosage, benefit, combination with calcipotriol where appropriate, successful in childhood/adolescence
  PUVA19,32,34,46–51 high-dose E, D questionable efficacy, extreme variance in dosage, combination (cream) with calcipotriol in childhood
Extragenital lichen sclerosus et atrophicus UVA - - requires evaluation
  UVA140,56–58 low-dose E, D, C effectiveness, disputable in combined morphea/lichen sclerosis et atrophicus
  PUVA59,60 low-dose E benefit, careful cream therapy for genitoanal lesions where appropriate
Sclerodermoid graft- vs-host disease UVA - - requires evaluation
  UVA162–64 low-/medium-dose E, D partial efficacy, medium-dose possibly more effective than low-dose, combined UV/immunosuppressive therapy
  PUVA65–71 medium-dose E, D, C skeptical effectiveness, potentially adjunct therapy in addition to conventional chemotherapy, more effective in lichenoid than sclerodermoid lesions
Lupus erythematosus UVA - - requires evaluation
  UVA173–78 low-dose D, C, A benefit in occasional cases, long-term application
  PUVA - - requires evaluation